Chapter 15 : Your Future And Information Technology

Nowadays, technology play the important role in our life.
We can communicate to other person by using mobile phone or internet (web cam).
Technology also helps us to do the work or assignment, surf the web more faster and easier.

Did U realized that..???

By the way, I want to talk about :


Did U know that technology can changes the natures of competition by introducing 
new products, new enterprises and new relationships among customer and supplier.

Meanwhile, the

People like us can be a cynical, naive, frustrated or proactive in response to technology

- person feel that this technology is troublesome to learn.

- can be unfamiliar or quite familiar with computers

- impatient and irritated about taking time to learn the technology.
- accept the technology in a positive way

here, i provide the article about the relationship between technology, people and value written by Jay Fienberg. Please read it yaa...!!!


posted: Dec 1, 2003 7:21:48 PM
This is something I have been working on, inspired by the good info in Smart Mobs, on the Laws of Moore, Sarnoff, Metcalfe, and Reed. I hope to use a version of this at work to help communicate the value of group-forming (social) network software as an emerging opportunity we should take advantage of (which my team happens to be set up to do :-).
When an enterprise looks to get value out of computer technology, Moore's Law is often cited and used to indicate the ongoing increase in the value that can be leveraged from technology. However, Moore's Law, while essential, was created in 1965, and now must be seen as only one of the laws that describe this increase in value.
With the Internet and now mobile technologies, the value of technology and how people use it can be understood in relation to four laws. These four laws look at not only technology but how people use technology to create value.
Moore's Law = computer processing power doubles every 18 months. Moore's Law also equates to an average performance improvement of over 1% a week.
Sarnoff's Law = the value of a broadcast network is proportionate to the number of viewers / readers.
Metcalfe's Law = value of a computer network is proportionate to the square of the number of nodes, i.e., n2. (And, connecting two networks creates far more value than the sum of their values as independent networks.)
Reed's Law = value of a group-forming network is proportionate to the exponential of the number of groups, i.e., 2n
Two important notes about these laws: 1) While Moore's Law may indicate the increasing value of any single device or computer, it does not account for value derived when that device or computer is connected to another—the other laws each account for this. 2) With the Internet (and so-called intranet technologies), each law builds on the one that precedes it—thus Reed's Law is effective by being the combination of Moore's Law, Sarnoff's Law, Metcalfe's Law and Reed's Law.
Table showing the relative network value of ten and eleven users in relation to each of the above laws: 

technology law example technology example application network value, 10 users network value, 11 users
Moore's law desktop pc Word, Excel 1 1
Sarnoff's law
~ n readers
TV, radio, some websites news website 10 11
Metcalfe's law
~ n2 nodes
common network addresses and protocols file sharing, email 100 121
Reed's law
~ 2n groups
group-forming networks / sites eBay, recommendations 1,024 2,048

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Hello and Hi everyone!!!!
How's your weekend???
Its fun???

This Week I Would Like To Share About The Differences Between Do-While and Do-Until

Are u ready???
Lets start it...!!!!

OPPSS...!!! Before it, I think U should know about the loop...

~ is the one of three logic structures
~ its describes about the process that may be 
   repeated as long as a certain condition remains true. 
~ also call as iteration
~ has 2 variations : DO WHILE and DO UNTIL

DO WHILE loop completes steps as long as a certain condition is true.
Meanwhile, DO UNTIL loop does something until a condition is no longer true.

  • The do loop executes a block of codes as long as a condition is satisfied.
  • If the condition is false as the while loop is entered the block of code is never executed. 
  • Since the condition is tested at the bottom of a do loop, it is block of code is always executed at least one
  • By the way, some people don't like these loops because it is always executed at least once.
  • It will execute no matter what value or type of data is supposed to be required
  • As long as the specified condition remains true, the list action continue to perform it just loops around and around.
  • Evaluates the condition at the top of the loop.
  • Example :DO read in job information WHILE (that is, as long as) there are more jobs
  • Opposite effect
  • The script continue to perform the task until a certain condition is met
  • Evaluates the condition at the bottom of the loop
  • The statements in a Do-Until loop always execute at least one time
  • Example : DO read in job information UNTIL there are no more jobs
So, please be careful and don't be confused again between do-while and do-until...
See you again later..
Bye...!!!! ^oo^

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chapter 14 : Programming and Language

 hi everyone... do you think program and programming is the same????

Programming and program is different...

The difference between a program and programming is programming is an actual activity of writing computer code in any of the various computer languages available, the end result of which is a program. The program can then be ran by the computer and perform the task the programmer told it to do.


There are six steps:
1. Program specification (Program analysis)
  • Program objective - the problem you want to solve 
  • Desired output - list what you want to get out of computer system
  •  Input data - can determine the input data and the source of this data
  •  Processing requirements - use the input to produce output
  •  Document program specification  - final task is to create a specifications document to                                                                    record 

2. Program design
  •  Top down program design –  identify the programs processing steps  
  •  Pseudocode  -  summary of the program before it is written 
  •  Flowcharts  -  present detail sequence of steps needed to solving a programming problems
  •  Logic structures – have  3 logic structures                                                                         a)Sequence structures - one program statement follow another                               b)Selection structure    - occurs when a decision made                                                              c) Loop structure - a process that may be repeated as long as condition remain true
3. Program code

  • Good programs – reliable ,detect obvious and common errors and well documented
  • Coding -  the different programming language                                                                           ~ formatting language instruct a computer how to display information  for  the user. As for      instance HTML                                                                                                                     ~ programming languages  instruct a computer to perform specific operation. C++ is a          widely use programming  language 

4. Program test
  • Syntax errors – violation of the rules of the programming language
  • Logic errors – occurs when the programmer uses an incorrect calculations or leave out programming procedure.
  •  Testing process - there are 5 methods                                                                                        a) Desk checking- programmer sitting at a desk checks a printout of the program                         b) Manually testing  with sample data - using a calculator and sample data to follow each                 program and performs every calculation                                                                                     c) Attempt at translation – the program to run using translator program                                         d) Testing sample data on the computer  use to test the correct execution of each statement   e) Testing by select group of potential user-the final step in testing program. 
5. Program documentation
  • User , who need know how to use the program
  • Operator , who need to know how to execute the program and how to recognize and correct errors
  • Programmers , who may need to update and maintain the program in the future 
6. Program maintenance 
  • Operations -  to correct operation error  and improve the program
  • Changing needs – change over time and their programs must change with them 


Programming language is an artificial language used to write instructions that can be translated into machine language and then executed by a computer. It creates programs that control the behavior of a machine.

the different between 

1) DO...UNTIL (an example of DO...UNTIL language)

2) DO...WHILE (an example of DO...WHILE programming language)

  DO...WHILE statement has a quite similar functionality to the normal while-statement. 




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Chapter 13: Systems Analysis & Design

1st of all as we know information system of an organization contain lots of information such as customer details, business transaction record, expenses record  and others information that needed by organization.

This is the reason why the management of an organization have to always examine and improve the quality of information system so that it can perform efficiently all the time.

The brief explanation of the steps involve in information system examination and improvement as following.

There are 6 steps to examine and improve information systems:

1) Preliminary Investigation

  • firstly, management of an organization identify the problem appear in information system then alternatives will be offer to solve the problem appear. 
  • the alternatives offer should can solve the problem identified by management.
  • after the appropriate alternatives had been selected, a report will prepare for top level of  management to decide what alternative should be taken to solve the identified problem.

2) Systems Analysis
  • in this stage, informations about how the present  information system perform will be gathered so that can help to improve the new information system design.
  • report about present information system, improvement should be make on present system will  be prepared. 
  • top management can review the problem of present system and can also view the steps involve in designing new system prepared by system designers.

3) Systems Design
  • several alternatives for designing new information system suggested and only the best alternative will be choose. 
  • system designing report will prepared for management so they can understand more about the system include costs in designing this system and benefits can get from this alternative choice. 

4) Systems Development
  • software needed to develop new system will obtain by system designers to help them in developing new system. 
  • in the other hand, they will determine whether new hardware need for new system development.
  • since the hardware and software are installed, the system will be tested and determine it efficiency.
  • if the new system cannot work properly, problem will be identify and re-examine the system to find out the problem. Testing on system will take for several times to make sure it can work properly and fulfill the requirement of organization management.

5) Systems Implementation
  • in this stage, new information system will replace present information system. This process named 'conversion' and also can said as converting from old system to new system.
  • training for employees will be provided on how to use the new information systems. Training for employees is important, it is because they will use the this systems in future.

6) Systems Maintenance
  • lastly, maintenance on information system after new information system is using in an organization should make. This is to make sure the system always in good condition.
  • evaluation on new information system will be make so that can know its performance. 

Thats all for the briefly explanation on how to develop new information system.

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Chapter 12 : Database

Hi everyone...!!!
How are u???
Did u guys doing well???
Me too.....

So, this week, I would like to share the information about the DATABASE...
First.. Do u ever heard about the database??? What?? No..!!!

Database is design to store, managing and retrieving the data. Other than that, database also reduce data redundancy, enhance data integrity, support data sharing and provide security.

Fields, records and files are example for traditional databases.
Fields ~ single piece of information...
Records ~ one complete set of fields...
and Files ~ collection of records

Database tables consist of column and rows, where each column contains a different type of attribute and each row corresponds to a single record.


If database have column and row, should we use a spreadsheet to replace the database???
NO... u can't...!!!
It is because spreadsheet can't do the action same like databases.
eg : ~ retrieve all records that match certain criteria
      ~ perform complex aggregate calculations
      ~ cross reference records in different tables
      ~ update records in bulk

So, can u see the different now???


software : it is called as database management system
it can be dived into 2 categories
~ desktop database
   - single-user applications and reside on standard personal computers
   -  FoxPro, FileMaker Pro, Paradox, Microsoft Acess and Lotus Approach
   - advantages : inexpensive, user-friendly, offer web solutions  

~ server database
   - ensure the reliability and consistency of data and are geared toward multi-user 
   - design to run on high-performance serves and carry a corresponding higher 
     price tag.
   - example : Oracle, IBM DB2, Microsoft SQL
   - advantages : powerful performance, scalability and flexibility


Did u know that database have 5 types??? Its consist of

1. Individual
    - also known as microcomputer database
    - can be stored either on the user's hard disk or on LAN file server

2. Company or shared
    - stored on a mainframe and managed by a database admin.
    - 2 types : common operational database and common user database.

3. Distributed
    - stored in several location
    - its provide the link between users and distant data

4. Propriety
    - enormous database that an organization develops to cover particular subject.
    - offers access to this database to the public or selected outside individuals for fee.
    - sometimes know as information utilities or data banks.

5. Web Database
    - used by web sites collecting data and search sites providing data


~ Business :
   like order processing, payroll, shipping, inventory

~ Educational Institutions : 
   keep the students grades, transfer and transcripts

~ Household and Family Management : 
   Bills and other expenses, address of friend and relative, family birthdays

~ Non-Profit Organizations : 
   track of information like donations, volunteer and hours
   served in the community 

Check this video for more information about database

U also can go to this link for further information...
Its enough for today... and see u later ^..^  annyoong..!!!



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Chapter 11: Information System

Pengalaman menggunakan MIS

Pengalaman semasa menjalani latihan industri (Politeknik) selama 6 bulan di Lembaga Koko Malaysia.

 Sistem ini adalah penting memandangkan sistem maklumat pasaran adalah berhubung rapat dengan sistem pengurusan, prosedur untuk membuat keputusan, analisa maklumat perdagangan, pengendalian terhadap kaedah-kaedah dan data-data kajian pasaran, risiko pasaran dan sebagainya.

             Sistem ini boleh digunakan sebagai sistem pemprosesan data untuk kawalan pengurusan dan membuat keputusan dalam penentuan dasar dan strategi pembangunan industri dan program-program pembangunan pasaran. Sistem ini termasuklah pengumpulan data dan maklumat asas industri dan pasaran dalam negara dan juga peringkat antarabangsa di mana sistem ini terdapat dua bahagian iaitu maklumat koko tempatan dan maklumat koko antarabangsa atau dunia.

Maklumat pasaran koko terbahagi kepada:

1. Perangkaan asas koko                                                                                                                        - Perangkaan asas koko yang akan dikumpul dan dikendalikan termasuklah data-data keluasan, pengeluaran, pengisaran, harga dan gunatenaga. Sebahagian besar dari perangkaan-perangkaan ini akan melibatkan pengumpulan data-data primer dan perlu dikemaskinikan dari masa ke semasa.                 

2. Perangkaan import eksport                                                                                                   
Maklumat-maklumat ini meliputi negara-negara yang mengimport dan mengeksport koko dan produk-produk koko termasuk destinasi eksport, sumber import, kuantiti dan nilai (RM). Data ini akan dikemaskinikan setiap bulan bergantung kepada penerimaan maklumat daripada Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia.

- Maklumat ini merangkumi tarif untuk koko dan produk-produk koko, bahan-bahan lain seperti gula, garam, susu, buah-buahan, tepung dan minyak dan juga bahan-bahan pembungkus. Maklumat mengenai tarif air dan elektrik juga akan dikumpul.                                                                               

4. Spesifikasi produk                                                                                                                   -Maklumat ini akan memasukkan spesifikasi mengenai biji koko, lemak dan serbuk koko.

5. Profil industri koko malaysia                                                                                                          -Aktiviti-aktiviti ini akan mengumpulkan dan menguruskan maklumat-maklumat utama industri koko Malaysia serta profail syarikat-syarikat pengeluar, pengeksport, pengisar dan pengilang coklat di Malaysia. Ini termasuk maklumat-maklumat asas syarikat, data pengeluaran, pemasaran dan perdagangan.

6. Insentif                                                                                                                                   
 -Aktiviti ini akan mengumpulkan maklumat-maklumat berkaitan dengan insentif yang disediakan untuk industri koko.

7. Profil perkapalan                                                                                                           
-Maklumat yang dikumpul termasuklah profail syarikat-syarikat perkapalan yang menghantar koko ke luar negara dan juga pelabuhan tempatan. 

8. Kadar pertukaran mata wang                                                                                                                   -Aktiviti ini akan mengumpulkan maklumat mengenai kadar pertukaran matawang Sterling Pound, US$, Deutsche Marks dan Yen Jepun.

9. Input                                                                                                                                               -Aktiviti ini pula akan mengumpulkan maklumat mengenai syarikat-syarikat yang membekal, menjual baja, racun dan juga mesin yang digunakan dalam industri koko.

10. Pertanyaan perdagangan                                                                                                               -Maklumat ini merangkumi pertanyaan luar negara yang berkaitan dengan industri koko Malaysia.

Maklumat koko antarabangsa / dunia

       1. Perangkaan Dunia

Maklumat yang akan dimasukkan adalah perangkaan mengenai keluasan, pengeluaran, pengisaran, anggaran kedudukan harga koko dunia dan perdagangan luar 

      2.   Profil Negara Pengeluar dan Pengguna

Berdasarkan kepada maklumat-maklumat dari negara-negara pengeluar maka ia akan membolehkan analisa perbandingan dijalankan bagi mengukur kedudukan dan tahap kemajuan industri koko di kalangan berbagai negara serta kemampuan dan dayasaing. Malaysia sebagai pengeluar koko berbanding negara-negara lain samada dari segi kos, pengurusan, kuantiti dan kualiti hasil pengeluaran, kemajuan teknologi dan pengetahuan teknikal atau penemuan-penemuan baru dalam industri koko.

Sementara maklumat-maklumat negara pengguna akan membolehkan analisa dijalankan bagi menetahui kedudukan syer Malaysia di pasaran-pasaran berkenaan, pesaing-pesaing Malaysia serta petunjuk-petunjuk pasaran yang akan membantu untuk merangka strategi bagi meluaskan lagi pasaran dan mengukuhkan kedudukan Malaysia.

Data yang dikumpul termasuklah latar belakang, perangkaan koko, input duti, perdagangan koko, profail industri, spesifikasi produk, harga dan organisasi pertubuhan.

Projek-projek yang akan dilaksanakan akan menumpukan negara-negara pengeluar dan pengguna koko Malaysia yang utama.

        3.  Standard Koko Antarabangsa
Maklumat ini merangkumi standard koko yang digunakan di pasaran antarabangsa.

Selalunya data akan dikumpul daripada kajian, surat menyurat, dan pelbagai bahan-bahan terbitan.  Data-data dan maklumat-maklumat diformatkan mengikut keperluan samada dalam bentuk jadual, graf atau ringkasan laporan. Ia juga boleh membuat analisa kuantitatif dalam bentuk jadual dan ramalan. Laporan-laporan dari sistem ini juga boleh digunakan dalam menyediakan garis panduan pelaburan dan pengeluaran laporan atau terbitan bersiri.

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Chapter 11: Information System

Information system is a computer based information system that collect and use the data for organization present or future activities. There are 4 types of information systems that common use in an organization.

1. Transaction Processing System (TPS)


  • system that collect, store the  transaction data and process it.
  •  this system will record daily transaction and process it real time or collect the data for certain period of time then only process it in batch.
  • the most common  example real time transaction processing for that happen in our life is Automated Teller Machine (ATM) transaction. 
  • when we take money from ATM, directly the bank will record our transaction and then deduct the amount of money in our accounts. 
  • the batch processing is doing by bank when it want to generate report of cash in or out  in a certain week or certain month.
  • this process is hide from public like you and me.
  • this system only record the transaction information and is a basic for an organization and this information will help in decision making by higher management in an organization.

2. Management Information System (MIS)

  • this system will summarize all the data from Transaction Processing System.
3. Decision Support System (DSS)

  • is a tool for analyzing data and help in decision making by providing useful data for a manager in organization.

4. Executive Support System (ESS)/ Executive Information System (EIS)

  • as we know, executive is a high position in an organization and is a busy person.
  • normally this system is use for executive and will present a report in graphic form.
  • this will easier the executive to read the report by just viewing the graphic such as bar chart, pie chart that show the percentage in report but not full with text.                         

Example for Executive Support System (ESS)

  • So popular, expanded to managers, analysts and other knowledge workers
  • E.g., Firms with an EIS designed to maintain managers' "mental models" were less effective than firms with an EIS designed to build or enhance managers' knowledge (Vandenbosch and Huff (1992).

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